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Annotation of /pkg/inst/NEWS.Rd

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1 : feinerer 1170 \name{NEWS}
2 :     \title{News for Package 'tm'}
3 : khornik 1396 \encoding{UTF-8}
4 : feinerer 1535 \section{Changes in tm version 0.7-5}{
5 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
6 :     \itemize{
7 :     \item Handle \code{NA}s consistently in tokenizers.
8 :     }
9 :     }
10 :     }
11 : feinerer 1529 \section{Changes in tm version 0.7-4}{
12 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
13 :     \itemize{
14 : feinerer 1531 \item Keep document names in \code{tm_map.SimpleCorpus()}.
15 : feinerer 1529 \item Fix encoding problems in \code{scan_tokenizer()} and
16 :     \code{Boost_tokenizer()}.
17 :     }
18 :     }
19 :     }
20 : feinerer 1520 \section{Changes in tm version 0.7-3}{
21 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
22 :     \itemize{
23 :     \item \code{scan_tokenizer()} now works with character vectors and
24 :     character strings.
25 :     \item \code{removePunctuation()} now works again in \code{latin1} locales.
26 :     \item Handle empty term-document matrices gracefully.
27 :     }
28 :     }
29 :     }
30 : feinerer 1474 \section{Changes in tm version 0.7-2}{
31 : feinerer 1481 \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
32 :     \itemize{
33 :     \item \code{DataframeSource} now only processes data frames with the two
34 :     mandatory columns \code{"doc_id"} and \code{"text"}. Additional columns
35 :     are used as document level metadata. This implements compatibility with
36 :     \emph{Text Interchange Formats} corpora
37 :     (\url{https://github.com/ropensci/tif}).
38 :     \item \code{readTabular()} has been removed. Use \code{DataframeSource}
39 :     instead.
40 : feinerer 1495 \item \code{removeNumbers()} and \code{removePunctuation()} now have an
41 :     argument \code{ucp} to check for Unicode general categories \code{Nd}
42 :     (decimal digits) and \code{P} (punctuation), respectively. Contributed
43 :     by Kurt Hornik.
44 : feinerer 1503 \item The package \pkg{xml2} is now imported for \acronym{XML}
45 :     functionality instead of the (\acronym{CRAN} maintainer orphaned)
46 :     package \pkg{XML}.
47 : feinerer 1481 }
48 :     }
49 : feinerer 1488 \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
50 :     \itemize{
51 :     \item \code{Boost_tokenizer} provides a tokenizer based on the Boost
52 :     (\url{http://www.boost.org}) Tokenizer.
53 :     }
54 :     }
55 : feinerer 1474 \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
56 :     \itemize{
57 :     \item Correctly handle the \code{dictionary} argument when constructing a
58 : feinerer 1478 term-document matrix from a \code{SimpleCorpus} (reported by Joe
59 :     Corrigan) or from a \code{VCorpus} (reported by Mark Rosenstein).
60 : feinerer 1474 }
61 :     }
62 :     }
63 : khornik 1472 \section{Changes in tm version 0.7-1}{
64 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
65 :     \itemize{
66 :     \item Compilation fixes for Clang's libc++.
67 :     }
68 :     }
69 :     }
70 : feinerer 1437 \section{Changes in tm version 0.7}{
71 : feinerer 1436 \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
72 :     \itemize{
73 :     \item \code{inspect.TermDocumentMatrix()} now displays a sample instead
74 :     of the full matrix. The full dense representation is available via
75 :     \code{as.matrix()}.
76 :     }
77 :     }
78 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
79 :     \itemize{
80 : feinerer 1437 \item \code{SimpleCorpus} provides a corpus which is optimized for the
81 :     most common usage scenario: importing plain texts from files in a
82 : feinerer 1440 directory or directly from a vector in \R, preprocessing and transforming
83 : feinerer 1437 the texts, and finally exporting them to a term-document matrix. The aim
84 :     is to boost performance and minimize memory pressure. It loads all
85 :     documents into memory, and is designed for medium-sized to large data
86 :     sets.
87 : feinerer 1436 \item \code{inspect()} on text documents as a shorthand for
88 :     \code{writeLines(as.character())}.
89 : feinerer 1450 \item \code{findMostFreqTerms()} finds most frequent terms in a
90 :     document-term or term-document matrix, or a vector of term frequencies.
91 : feinerer 1466 \item \code{tm_parLapply()} is now internally used for the parallelization
92 :     of transformations, filters, and term-document matrix construction. The
93 :     preferred parallelization engine can be registered via
94 :     \code{tm_parLapply_engine()}. The default is to use no parallelization
95 :     (instead of \code{\link[parallel]{mclapply}} (package \pkg{parallel}) in
96 :     previous versions).
97 : feinerer 1436 }
98 :     }
99 :     }
100 : feinerer 1432 \section{Changes in tm version 0.6-2}{
101 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
102 :     \itemize{
103 :     \item \code{format.PlainTextDocument()} now reports only one character
104 :     count for a whole document.
105 :     }
106 :     }
107 :     }
108 : feinerer 1397 \section{Changes in tm version 0.6-1}{
109 : feinerer 1432 \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
110 :     \itemize{
111 :     \item \code{format.PlainTextDocument()} now displays a compact
112 :     representation instead of the content. Use \code{as.character()} to
113 :     obtain the character content (which in turn can be applied to a corpus
114 :     via \code{lapply()}).
115 :     }
116 :     }
117 : feinerer 1397 \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
118 :     \itemize{
119 : feinerer 1425 \item \code{ZipSource()} for processing ZIP files.
120 : feinerer 1397 \item Sources now provide \code{open()} and \code{close()}.
121 : feinerer 1425 \item \code{termFreq()} now accepts \code{Span_Tokenizer} and
122 :     \code{Token_Tokenizer} (both from package \pkg{NLP}) objects as
123 :     tokenizers.
124 :     \item \code{readTagged()}, a reader for text documents containing
125 :     POS-tagged words.
126 : feinerer 1397 }
127 :     }
128 : feinerer 1413 \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
129 :     \itemize{
130 :     \item The function \code{removeWords()} now correctly processes words
131 :     being truncations of others. Reported by Александр Труфанов.
132 :     }
133 :     }
134 : feinerer 1397 }
135 : feinerer 1345 \section{Changes in tm version 0.6}{
136 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
137 :     \itemize{
138 : feinerer 1368 \item \code{DirSource()} and \code{URISource()} now use the argument
139 :     \code{encoding} for conversion via \code{iconv()} to \code{"UTF-8"}.
140 :     \item \code{termFreq()} now uses \code{words()} as the default tokenizer.
141 : feinerer 1345 \item Text documents now provide the functions \code{content()} and
142 :     \code{as.character()} to access the (possibly raw) document content and
143 :     the natural language text in a suitable (not necessarily structured)
144 :     form.
145 : feinerer 1372 \item The internal representation of corpora, sources, and text documents
146 :     changed. Saved objects created with older \pkg{tm} versions are
147 :     incompatible and need to be rebuilt.
148 : feinerer 1345 }
149 :     }
150 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
151 :     \itemize{
152 :     \item \code{DirSource()} and \code{URISource()} now have a \code{mode}
153 :     argument specifying how elements should be read (no read, binary, text).
154 :     \item Improved high-level documentation on corpora (\code{?Corpus}), text
155 :     documents (\code{?TextDocument}), sources (\code{?Source}), and readers
156 :     (\code{?Reader}).
157 : feinerer 1368 \item Integration with package \pkg{NLP}.
158 :     \item Romanian stopwords. Suggested by Cristian Chirita.
159 :     \item \code{words.PlainTextDocument()} delivers word tokens in the
160 :     document.
161 : feinerer 1345 }
162 :     }
163 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
164 :     \itemize{
165 :     \item The function \code{stemCompletion()} now avoids spurious duplicate
166 :     results. Reported by Seong-Hyeon Kim.
167 :     }
168 :     }
169 :     \subsection{DEPRECATED & DEFUNCT}{
170 :     \itemize{
171 :     \item Following functions have been removed:
172 :     \itemize{
173 :     \item \code{Author()}, \code{DateTimeStamp()}, \code{CMetaData()},
174 :     \code{content_meta()}, \code{DMetaData()}, \code{Description()},
175 :     \code{Heading()}, \code{ID()}, \code{Language()},
176 :     \code{LocalMetaData()}, \code{Origin()}, \code{prescindMeta()},
177 :     \code{sFilter()} (use \code{meta()} instead).
178 :     \item \code{dissimilarity()} (use \code{proxy::dist()} instead).
179 :     \item \code{makeChunks()} (use \code{[} and \code{[[} manually).
180 :     \item \code{summary.Corpus()} and \code{summary.TextRepository()}
181 :     (\code{print()} now gives a more informative but succinct overview).
182 :     \item \code{TextRepository()} and \code{RepoMetaData()} (use e.g. a
183 :     list to store multiple corpora instead).
184 :     }
185 :     }
186 :     }
187 :     }
188 : feinerer 1239 \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-10}{
189 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
190 :     \itemize{
191 :     \item License changed to GPL-3 (from GPL-2 | GPL-3).
192 : feinerer 1255 \item Following functions have been renamed:
193 :     \itemize{
194 : feinerer 1432 \item \code{tm_tag_score()} to \code{tm_term_score()}.
195 : feinerer 1255 }
196 : feinerer 1239 }
197 :     }
198 : feinerer 1242 \subsection{DEPRECATED & DEFUNCT}{
199 :     \itemize{
200 : feinerer 1253 \item Following functions have been removed:
201 :     \itemize{
202 : feinerer 1277 \item \code{Dictionary()} (use a character vector instead; use
203 : feinerer 1535 \code{Terms()} to extract terms from a document-term or term-document
204 : feinerer 1277 matrix),
205 : feinerer 1258 \item \code{GmaneSource()} (but still available via an example in
206 : feinerer 1283 \code{XMLSource()}),
207 : feinerer 1260 \item \code{preprocessReut21578XML()} (moved to package
208 :     \pkg{tm.corpus.Reuters21578}),
209 : feinerer 1258 \item \code{readGmane()} (but still available via an example in
210 : feinerer 1283 \code{readXML()}),
211 : feinerer 1432 \item \code{searchFullText()} and \code{tm_intersect()}
212 : feinerer 1253 (use \code{grep()} instead).
213 :     }
214 : feinerer 1242 \item Following S3 classes are no longer registered as S4 classes:
215 :     \itemize{
216 : feinerer 1432 \item \code{VCorpus} and \code{PlainTextDocument}.
217 : feinerer 1242 }
218 :     }
219 :     }
220 : feinerer 1239 }
221 : feinerer 1224 \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-9}{
222 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
223 :     \itemize{
224 : feinerer 1226 \item Stemming functionality is now provided by the package
225 :     \pkg{SnowballC} replacing packages \pkg{Snowball} and \pkg{RWeka}.
226 : feinerer 1224 \item All stopword lists (besides Catalan and SMART) available via
227 :     \code{stopwords()} now come from the Snowball stemmer project.
228 : feinerer 1227 \item Transformations, filters, and term-document matrix construction
229 :     now use \code{\link[parallel]{mclapply}} (package \pkg{parallel}).
230 :     Packages \pkg{snow} and \pkg{Rmpi} are no longer used.
231 : feinerer 1224 }
232 :     }
233 : feinerer 1227 \subsection{DEPRECATED & DEFUNCT}{
234 :     \itemize{
235 :     \item Following functions have been removed:
236 :     \itemize{
237 : feinerer 1432 \item \code{tm_startCluster()} and \code{tm_stopCluster()}.
238 : feinerer 1227 }
239 :     }
240 :     }
241 : feinerer 1224 }
242 : feinerer 1173 \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-8}{
243 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
244 :     \itemize{
245 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} now processes the
246 : feinerer 1535 \code{tolower} and \code{tokenize} options first.
247 : feinerer 1173 }
248 :     }
249 : feinerer 1174 \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
250 :     \itemize{
251 :     \item Catalan stopwords. Requested by Xavier Fernández i Marín.
252 :     }
253 :     }
254 : feinerer 1173 \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
255 :     \itemize{
256 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} now correctly accepts
257 :     user-provided stopwords. Reported by Bettina Grün.
258 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} now correctly handles the
259 :     lower bound of the option \code{wordLength}. Reported by Steven
260 :     C. Bagley.
261 :     }
262 :     }
263 :     }
264 : feinerer 1170 \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-7}{
265 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
266 :     \itemize{
267 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} provides two new arguments for
268 :     generalized bounds checking of term frequencies and word
269 :     lengths. This replaces the arguments minDocFreq and
270 :     minWordLength.
271 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} is now sensitive to the order of
272 :     control options.
273 :     }
274 :     }
275 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
276 :     \itemize{
277 :     \item Weighting schemata for term-document matrices in SMART notation.
278 :     \item Local and global options for term-document matrix
279 :     construction.
280 :     \item SMART stopword list was added.
281 :     }
282 :     }
283 :     }
284 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-5}{
285 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
286 :     \itemize{
287 :     \item Access documents in a corpus by names (fallback to IDs if names are
288 :     not set), i.e., allow a string for the corpus operator `[[`.
289 :     }
290 :     }
291 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
292 :     \itemize{
293 :     \item The function \code{findFreqTerms()} now checks bounds on a global level
294 :     (to comply with the manual page) instead per document. Reported
295 :     and fixed by Thomas Zapf-Schramm.
296 :     }
297 :     }
298 :     }
299 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-4}{
300 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
301 :     \itemize{
302 :     \item Use IETF language tags for language codes (instead of ISO 639-2).
303 :     }
304 :     }
305 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
306 :     \itemize{
307 :     \item The function \code{tm_tag_score()} provides functionality to score
308 :     documents based on the number of tags found. This is useful for
309 :     sentiment analysis.
310 :     \item The weighting function for term frequency-inverse document
311 :     frequency \code{weightTfIdf()} has now an option for term
312 :     normalization.
313 :     \item Plotting functions to test for Zipf's and Heaps' law on a
314 :     term-document matrix were added: \code{Zipf_plot()} and
315 :     \code{Heaps_plot()}. Contributed by Kurt Hornik.
316 :     }
317 :     }
318 :     }
319 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-3}{
320 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
321 :     \itemize{
322 :     \item The reader function \code{readRCV1asPlain()} was added and combines the
323 :     functionality of \code{readRCV1()} and \code{as.PlainTextDocument()}.
324 :     \item The function \code{stemCompletion()} has a set of new heuristics.
325 :     }
326 :     }
327 :     }
328 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-2}{
329 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
330 :     \itemize{
331 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} which is used for building a
332 :     term-document matrix now uses a whitespace oriented tokenizer
333 :     as default.
334 :     }
335 :     }
336 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
337 :     \itemize{
338 :     \item A combine method for merging multiple term-document matrices
339 :     was added (\code{c.TermDocumentMatrix()}).
340 :     \item The function \code{termFreq()} has now an option to remove
341 :     punctuation characters.
342 :     }
343 :     }
344 :     \subsection{DEPRECATED & DEFUNCT}{
345 :     \itemize{
346 :     \item Following functions have been removed:
347 :     \itemize{
348 : feinerer 1432 \item \code{CSVSource()} (use \code{DataframeSource(read.csv(..., stringsAsFactors = FALSE))} instead), and
349 : feinerer 1170 \item \code{TermDocMatrix()} (use \code{DocumentTermMatrix()} instead).
350 :     }
351 :     }
352 :     }
353 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
354 :     \itemize{
355 :     \item \code{removeWords()} no longer skips words at the beginning or the end
356 :     of a line. Reported by Mark Kimpel.
357 :     }
358 :     }
359 :     }
360 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.5-1}{
361 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
362 :     \itemize{
363 :     \item \code{preprocessReut21578XML()} no longer generates invalid file names.
364 :     }
365 :     }
366 :     }
367 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.5}{
368 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
369 :     \itemize{
370 :     \item All classes, functions, and generics are reimplemented using
371 :     the S3 class system.
372 :     \item Following functions have been renamed:
373 :     \itemize{
374 : feinerer 1432 \item \code{activateCluster()} to \code{tm_startCluster()},
375 : feinerer 1170 \item \code{asPlain()} to \code{as.PlainTextDocument()},
376 :     \item \code{deactivateCluster()} to \code{tm_stopCluster()},
377 :     \item \code{tmFilter()} to \code{tm_filter()},
378 :     \item \code{tmIndex()} to \code{tm_index()},
379 :     \item \code{tmIntersect()} to \code{tm_intersect()}, and
380 :     \item \code{tmMap()} to \code{tm_map()}.
381 :     }
382 :     \item Mail handling functionality is factored out to the
383 : feinerer 1233 \pkg{tm.plugin.mail} package.
384 : feinerer 1170 }
385 :     }
386 :     \subsection{DEPRECATED & DEFUNCT}{
387 :     \itemize{
388 :     \item Following functions have been removed:
389 :     \itemize{
390 :     \item \code{tmTolower()} (use \code{tolower()} instead), and
391 : feinerer 1172 \item \code{replacePatterns()} (use \code{gsub()} instead).
392 : feinerer 1170 }
393 :     }
394 :     }
395 :     }
396 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.4}{
397 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
398 :     \itemize{
399 :     \item The Corpus class is now virtual providing an abstract
400 :     interface.
401 :     \item VCorpus, the default implementation of the abstract corpus
402 :     interface (by subclassing), provides a corpus with volatile (=
403 : feinerer 1438 standard \R object) semantics. It loads all documents into
404 : feinerer 1170 memory, and is designed for small to medium-sized data sets.
405 :     \item PCorpus, an implementation of the abstract corpus interface (by
406 :     subclassing), provides a corpus with permanent storage
407 :     semantics. The actual data is stored in an external database
408 : feinerer 1233 (file) object (as supported by the \pkg{filehash} package), with
409 : feinerer 1170 automatic (un-)loading into memory. It is designed for systems
410 :     with small memory.
411 :     \item Language codes are now in ISO 639-2 (instead of ISO 639-1).
412 :     \item Reader functions no longer have a load argument for lazy
413 :     loading.
414 :     }
415 :     }
416 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
417 :     \itemize{
418 :     \item The reader function \code{readReut21578XMLasPlain()} was added and
419 :     combines the functionality of \code{readReut21578XML()} and \code{asPlain()}.
420 :     }
421 :     }
422 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
423 :     \itemize{
424 :     \item \code{weightTfIdf()} no longer applies a binary weighting to an input
425 :     matrix in term frequency format (which happened only in 0.3-4).
426 :     }
427 :     }
428 :     }
429 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.3-4}{
430 :     \subsection{SIGNIFICANT USER-VISIBLE CHANGES}{
431 :     \itemize{
432 :     \item \code{.onLoad()} no longer tries to start a MPI cluster (which often
433 :     failed in misconfigured environments). Use \code{activateCluster()}
434 :     and \code{deactivateCluster()} instead.
435 :     \item DocumentTermMatrix (the improved reimplementation of defunct
436 : feinerer 1233 TermDocMatrix) does not use the \pkg{Matrix} package anymore.
437 : feinerer 1170 }
438 :     }
439 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
440 :     \itemize{
441 :     \item The \code{DirSource()} constructor now accepts the two new (optional)
442 :     arguments pattern and ignore.case. With pattern one can define
443 :     a regular expression for selecting only matching files, and
444 :     ignore.case specifies whether pattern-matching is
445 :     case-sensitive.
446 :     \item The \code{readNewsgroup()} reader function can now be configured for
447 :     custom date formats (via the DateFormat argument).
448 :     \item The \code{readPDF()} reader function can now be configured (via the
449 :     PdfinfoOptions and PdftotextOptions arguments).
450 :     \item The \code{readDOC()} reader function can now be configured (via the
451 :     AntiwordOptions argument).
452 :     \item Sources now can be vectorized. This allows faster corpus
453 :     construction.
454 :     \item New XMLSource class for arbitrary XML files.
455 :     \item The new \code{readTabular()} reader function allows to create a custom
456 :     tailor-made reader configured via mappings from a tabular data
457 :     structure.
458 :     \item The new \code{readXML()} reader function allows to read in arbitrary
459 :     XML files which are described with a specification.
460 :     \item The new \code{tmReduce()} transformation allows to combine multiple
461 :     maps into one transformation.
462 :     }
463 :     }
464 :     \subsection{DEPRECATED & DEFUNCT}{
465 :     \itemize{
466 :     \item CSVSource is defunct (use DataframeSource instead).
467 :     \item weightLogical is defunct.
468 :     \item TermDocMatrix is defunct (use DocumentTermMatrix or
469 :     TermDocumentMatrix instead).
470 :     }
471 :     }
472 :     }
473 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.3-3}{
474 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
475 :     \itemize{
476 :     \item The abstract Source class gets a default implementation for
477 :     the \code{stepNext()} method. It increments the position counter by
478 :     one, a reasonable value for most sources. For special purposes
479 :     custom methods can be created via overloading \code{stepNext()} of
480 :     the subclass.
481 :     \item New URISource class for a single document identified by a
482 :     Uniform Resource Identifier.
483 :     \item New DataframeSource for documents stored in a data frame. Each
484 :     row is interpreted as a single document.
485 :     }
486 :     }
487 :     \subsection{BUG FIXES}{
488 :     \itemize{
489 :     \item Fix off-by-one error in \code{convertMboxEml()} function. Reported by
490 :     Angela Bohn.
491 :     \item Sort row indices in sparse term-document matrices. Kudos to
492 :     Martin Mächler for his suggestions.
493 :     \item Sources and readers no longer evaluate calls in a non-standard
494 :     way.
495 :     }
496 :     }
497 :     }
498 :     \section{Changes in tm version 0.3-2}{
499 :     \subsection{NEW FEATURES}{
500 :     \itemize{
501 :     \item Weighting functions now have an Acronym slot containing
502 :     abbreviations of the weighting functions' names. This is highly
503 :     useful when generating tables with indications which weighting
504 :     scheme was actually used for your experiments.
505 :     \item The functions \code{tmFilter()}, \code{tmIndex()}, \code{tmMap()} and \code{TermDocMatrix()}
506 : feinerer 1233 now can use a MPI cluster (via the \pkg{snow} and \pkg{Rmpi} packages) if
507 : feinerer 1170 available. Use \code{(de)activateCluster()} to manually override
508 :     cluster usage settings. Special thanks to Stefan Theussl for
509 :     his constructive comments.
510 :     \item The Source class receives a new Length slot. It contains the
511 :     number of elements provided by the source (although there
512 :     might be rare cases where the number cannot be determined in
513 :     advance---then it should be set to zero).
514 :     }
515 :     }
516 :     }

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