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[matrix] Diff of /pkg/R/Matrix.R
 [matrix] / pkg / R / Matrix.R

Diff of /pkg/R/Matrix.R

revision 1673, Mon Nov 6 20:54:26 2006 UTC revision 2039, Mon Aug 6 18:49:27 2007 UTC
# Line 3  Line 3
3
4  ### Virtual coercions -- via smart "helpers" (-> ./Auxiliaries.R)  ### Virtual coercions -- via smart "helpers" (-> ./Auxiliaries.R)
5
6  setAs("Matrix", "sparseMatrix", function(from) as_Csparse(from))  setAs("Matrix", "sparseMatrix", function(from) as(from, "CsparseMatrix"))
7    setAs("Matrix", "CsparseMatrix", function(from) as_Csparse(from))
8  setAs("Matrix", "denseMatrix",  function(from) as_dense(from))  setAs("Matrix", "denseMatrix",  function(from) as_dense(from))
9
10    ## Maybe TODO:
11    ## setAs("Matrix", "nMatrix", function(from) ....)
12
13  ## Most of these work; this is a last resort:  ## Most of these work; this is a last resort:
14  setAs(from = "Matrix", to = "matrix", # do *not* call base::as.matrix() here:  setAs(from = "Matrix", to = "matrix", # do *not* call base::as.matrix() here:
15        function(from) .bail.out.2("coerce", class(from), class(to)))        function(from) .bail.out.2("coerce", class(from), class(to)))
# Line 27  Line 31
32  setMethod("tail", signature(x = "Matrix"), utils::tail.matrix)  setMethod("tail", signature(x = "Matrix"), utils::tail.matrix)
33
34    setMethod("drop", signature(x = "Matrix"),
35              function(x) if(all(dim(x) != 1)) x else drop(as(x, "matrix")))
36
37  ## slow "fall back" method {subclasses should have faster ones}:  ## slow "fall back" method {subclasses should have faster ones}:
38  setMethod("as.vector", signature(x = "Matrix", mode = "missing"),  setMethod("as.vector", signature(x = "Matrix", mode = "missing"),
39            function(x) as.vector(as(x, "matrix")))            function(x) as.vector(as(x, "matrix")))
# Line 56  Line 63
63
64  setMethod("dim", signature(x = "Matrix"),  setMethod("dim", signature(x = "Matrix"),
65            function(x) x@Dim, valueClass = "integer")            function(x) x@Dim, valueClass = "integer")
66
67    setMethod("length", "Matrix", function(x) prod(dim(x)))
68
69  setMethod("dimnames", signature(x = "Matrix"), function(x) x@Dimnames)  setMethod("dimnames", signature(x = "Matrix"), function(x) x@Dimnames)
70
71
72  ## not exported but used more than once for "dimnames<-" method :  ## not exported but used more than once for "dimnames<-" method :
73  ## -- or do only once for all "Matrix" classes ??  ## -- or do only once for all "Matrix" classes ??
74  dimnamesGets <- function (x, value) {  dimnamesGets <- function (x, value) {
# Line 75  Line 87
87  setMethod("unname", signature("Matrix", force="missing"),  setMethod("unname", signature("Matrix", force="missing"),
88            function(obj) { obj@Dimnames <- list(NULL,NULL); obj})            function(obj) { obj@Dimnames <- list(NULL,NULL); obj})
89
90    setMethod("all", signature(x = "Matrix"),
91              function(x, ..., na.rm)
92              callGeneric(as(x, "lMatrix"), ..., na.rm=na.rm))
93
94    setMethod("any", signature(x = "Matrix"),
95              function(x, ..., na.rm)
96              callGeneric(as(x, "lMatrix"), ..., na.rm=na.rm))
97
98    ## NOTE:  "&" and "|"  are now in group "Logic" c "Ops" --> ./Ops.R
99    ##        "!" is in ./not.R
100
101
102  Matrix <-  Matrix <-
103      function (data = NA, nrow = 1, ncol = 1, byrow = FALSE, dimnames = NULL,      function (data = NA, nrow = 1, ncol = 1, byrow = FALSE, dimnames = NULL,
104                sparse = NULL, forceCheck = FALSE)                sparse = NULL, forceCheck = FALSE)
# Line 88  Line 112
112
113      doDN <- TRUE      doDN <- TRUE
114      if (i.M) {      if (i.M) {
115            if(!missing(nrow) || !missing(ncol)|| !missing(byrow))
116                warning("'nrow', 'ncol', etc, are disregarded when 'data' is \"Matrix\" already")
117          sM <- is(data,"sparseMatrix")          sM <- is(data,"sparseMatrix")
118          if(!forceCheck && ((sparse && sM) || (!sparse && !sM)))          if(!forceCheck && ((sparse && sM) || (!sparse && !sM)))
119              return(data)              return(data)
# Line 101  Line 127
127          if(length(data) == 1 && is0(data) && !identical(sparse, FALSE)) {          if(length(data) == 1 && is0(data) && !identical(sparse, FALSE)) {
128              ## Matrix(0, ...) : always sparse unless "sparse = FALSE":              ## Matrix(0, ...) : always sparse unless "sparse = FALSE":
129              if(is.null(sparse)) sparse1 <- sparse <- TRUE              if(is.null(sparse)) sparse1 <- sparse <- TRUE
130                i.M <- sM <- TRUE
131              ## will be sparse: do NOT construct full matrix!              ## will be sparse: do NOT construct full matrix!
132              data <- new(if(is.numeric(data)) "dgTMatrix" else              data <- new(if(is.numeric(data)) "dgTMatrix" else
133                          if(is.logical(data)) "lgTMatrix" else                          if(is.logical(data)) "lgTMatrix" else
# Line 115  Line 142
142              dimnames(data) <- dimnames              dimnames(data) <- dimnames
143          }          }
144          doDN <- FALSE          doDN <- FALSE
145      }      } else if(!missing(nrow) || !missing(ncol)|| !missing(byrow))
146            warning("'nrow', 'ncol', etc, are disregarded for matrix 'data'")
147
148      ## 'data' is now a "matrix" or "Matrix"      ## 'data' is now a "matrix" or "Matrix"
149      if (doDN && !is.null(dimnames))      if (doDN && !is.null(dimnames))
150          dimnames(data) <- dimnames          dimnames(data) <- dimnames
# Line 158  Line 187
187                    }, sep="")                    }, sep="")
188          }          }
189
190      ## Now coerce and return      ## Can we coerce and be done?
191        if(!canCoerce(data,cl)) { ## try to coerce ``via'' virtual classes
192            if(sparse && !sM)
193                data <- as(data, "sparseMatrix")
194            else if(!sparse && !is(data, "denseMatrix"))
195                data <- as(data, "denseMatrix")
196            if(isTri && !is(data, "triangularMatrix"))
197                data <- as(data, "triangularMatrix")
198            else if(isSym && !is(data, "symmetricMatrix"))
199                data <- as(data, "symmetricMatrix")
200        }
201        ## now coerce in any case .. maybe producing sensible error message:
202      as(data, cl)      as(data, cl)
203  }  }
204
# Line 169  Line 209
209
210  setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "numeric"),  setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "numeric"),
211            function(x, y) callGeneric(x, as.matrix(y)))            function(x, y) callGeneric(x, as.matrix(y)))

212  setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "numeric", y = "Matrix"),  setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "numeric", y = "Matrix"),
213            function(x, y) callGeneric(matrix(x, nrow = 1, byrow=TRUE), y))            function(x, y) callGeneric(matrix(x, nrow = 1, byrow=TRUE), y))
214
215    setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "matrix"),
216              function(x, y) callGeneric(x, Matrix(y)))
217    setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "matrix", y = "Matrix"),
218              function(x, y) callGeneric(Matrix(x), y))
219
220
221  setMethod("crossprod", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "numeric"),  setMethod("crossprod", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "numeric"),
222            function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(x, as.matrix(y)))            function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(x, as.matrix(y)))
223  setMethod("crossprod", signature(x = "numeric", y = "Matrix"),  setMethod("crossprod", signature(x = "numeric", y = "Matrix"),
224            function(x, y = NULL)  callGeneric(as.matrix(x), y))            function(x, y = NULL)  callGeneric(as.matrix(x), y))
225
226    setMethod("crossprod", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "matrix"),
227              function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(x, Matrix(y)))
228    setMethod("crossprod", signature(x = "matrix", y = "Matrix"),
229              function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(Matrix(x), y))
230
231  ## The as.matrix() promotion seems illogical to MM,  ## The as.matrix() promotion seems illogical to MM,
232  ## but is according to help(tcrossprod, package = "base") :  ## but is according to help(tcrossprod, package = "base") :
233  setMethod("tcrossprod", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "numeric"),  setMethod("tcrossprod", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "numeric"),
234            function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(x, as.matrix(y)))            function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(x, as.matrix(y)))
235  setMethod("tcrossprod", signature(x = "numeric", y = "Matrix"),  setMethod("tcrossprod", signature(x = "numeric", y = "Matrix"),
236            function(x, y = NULL)  callGeneric(as.matrix(x), y))            function(x, y = NULL)  callGeneric(as.matrix(x), y))
237    setMethod("tcrossprod", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "matrix"),
238              function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(x, Matrix(y)))
239    setMethod("tcrossprod", signature(x = "matrix", y = "Matrix"),
240              function(x, y = NULL) callGeneric(Matrix(x), y))
241
242  ## maybe not optimal  ## maybe not optimal
243  setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "missing"),  setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "missing"),
244            function(a, b, ...) solve(a, Diagonal(nrow(a))))            function(a, b, ...) solve(a, Diagonal(nrow(a))))
245
246  setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "numeric"),  setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "numeric"),
247            function(a, b, ...) callGeneric(a, as.matrix(b)))            function(a, b, ...) callGeneric(a, Matrix(b)))
## when no sub-class method is found, bail out
248  setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "matrix"),  setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "matrix"),
249            function(a, b, ...) .bail.out.2("solve", class(a), "matrix"))            function(a, b, ...) callGeneric(a, Matrix(b)))
250    setMethod("solve", signature(a = "matrix", b = "Matrix"),
251              function(a, b, ...) callGeneric(Matrix(a), b))
252
253    ## when no sub-class method is found, bail out
254    setMethod("solve", signature(a = "Matrix", b = "Matrix"),
255              function(a, b, ...) .bail.out.2("solve", class(a), class(b)))
256
257  ## bail-out methods in order to get better error messages  ## bail-out methods in order to get better error messages
258  setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "Matrix"),  setMethod("%*%", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "Matrix"),
# Line 220  Line 279
279  setMethod("kronecker", signature(X = "Matrix", Y = "ANY",  setMethod("kronecker", signature(X = "Matrix", Y = "ANY",
280                                   FUN = "ANY", make.dimnames = "ANY"),                                   FUN = "ANY", make.dimnames = "ANY"),
281            function(X, Y, FUN, make.dimnames, ...) {            function(X, Y, FUN, make.dimnames, ...) {
282                  if(is(X, "sparseMatrix"))
283                      warning("using slow kronecker() method")
284                X <- as(X, "matrix") ; Matrix(callGeneric()) })                X <- as(X, "matrix") ; Matrix(callGeneric()) })
285
286  setMethod("kronecker", signature(X = "ANY", Y = "Matrix",  setMethod("kronecker", signature(X = "ANY", Y = "Matrix",
287                                   FUN = "ANY", make.dimnames = "ANY"),                                   FUN = "ANY", make.dimnames = "ANY"),
288            function(X, Y, FUN, make.dimnames, ...) {            function(X, Y, FUN, make.dimnames, ...) {
289                  if(is(Y, "sparseMatrix"))
290                      warning("using slow kronecker() method")
291                Y <- as(Y, "matrix") ; Matrix(callGeneric()) })                Y <- as(Y, "matrix") ; Matrix(callGeneric()) })
292
293
# Line 238  Line 302
302  setMethod("t", signature(x = "Matrix"),  setMethod("t", signature(x = "Matrix"),
303            function(x) .bail.out.1(.Generic, class(x)))            function(x) .bail.out.1(.Generic, class(x)))
304
305  ## Group Methods  setMethod("norm", signature(x = "Matrix", type = "character"),
306  setMethod("+", signature(e1 = "Matrix", e2 = "missing"), function(e1) e1)            function(x, type, ...) .bail.out.1(.Generic, class(x)))
307  ## "fallback":  setMethod("rcond", signature(x = "Matrix", type = "character"),
308  setMethod("-", signature(e1 = "Matrix", e2 = "missing"),            function(x, type, ...) .bail.out.1(.Generic, class(x)))
309            function(e1) {
310                warning("inefficient method used for \"- e1\"")
311                0-e1  ## for all :
312    setMethod("norm", signature(x = "ANY", type = "missing"),
313              function(x, type, ...) norm(x, type = "O", ...))
314    setMethod("rcond", signature(x = "ANY", type = "missing"),
315              function(x, type, ...) rcond(x, type = "O", ...))
316
317
318
319
320
321    ## MM: More or less "Cut & paste" from
322    ## --- diff.default() from  R/src/library/base/R/diff.R :
323    setMethod("diff", signature(x = "Matrix"),
324              function(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, ...) {
325                  if (length(lag) > 1 || length(differences) > 1 ||
326                      lag < 1 || differences < 1)
327                      stop("'lag' and 'differences' must be integers >= 1")
328                  xlen <- nrow(x)
329                  if (lag * differences >= xlen)
330                      return(x[,FALSE][0])  # empty of proper mode
331
332                  i1 <- -1:-lag
333                  for (i in 1:differences)
334                      x <- x[i1, , drop = FALSE] -
335                          x[-nrow(x):-(nrow(x)-lag+1), , drop = FALSE]
336                  x
337            })            })
338
339  ## old-style matrices are made into new ones  setMethod("image", "Matrix",
340  setMethod("Ops", signature(e1 = "Matrix", e2 = "matrix"),            function(x, ...) { # coercing to sparse is not inefficient,
341            function(e1, e2) callGeneric(e1, Matrix(e2)))                ##               since we need 'i' and 'j' for levelplot()
342  ##          callGeneric(e1, Matrix(e2, sparse=is(e1,"sparseMatrix"))))                x <- as(as(x, "sparseMatrix"), "dMatrix")
343  setMethod("Ops", signature(e1 = "matrix", e2 = "Matrix"),                callGeneric()
function(e1, e2) callGeneric(Matrix(e1), e2))

## bail-outs -- on highest possible level, hence "Ops", not "Compare"/"Arith" :
setMethod("Ops", signature(e1 = "Matrix", e2 = "Matrix"),
function(e1, e2) {
d <- dimCheck(e1,e2)
.bail.out.2(.Generic, class(e1), class(e2))
344            })            })
setMethod("Ops", signature(e1 = "Matrix", e2 = "ANY"),
function(e1, e2) .bail.out.2(.Generic, class(e1), class(e2)))
setMethod("Ops", signature(e1 = "ANY", e2 = "Matrix"),
function(e1, e2) .bail.out.2(.Generic, class(e1), class(e2)))
345
346
347    ## Group Methods
348
349    ##-> see ./Ops.R
350    ##         ~~~~~
351    ## For all  non-dMatrix objects, and note that  "all" and "any" have their own
352    setMethod("Summary", signature(x = "Matrix", na.rm = "ANY"),
353              function(x, ..., na.rm)
354              callGeneric(as(x,"dMatrix"), ..., na.rm = na.rm))
355
356
357  ### --------------------------------------------------------------------------  ### --------------------------------------------------------------------------
358  ###  ###
# Line 285  Line 372
372  ## select rows  ## select rows
373  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "index", j = "missing",  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "index", j = "missing",
374                           drop = "missing"),                           drop = "missing"),
375            function(x,i,j, drop) callGeneric(x, i=i, drop= TRUE))            function(x,i,j, drop) {
376                  if(nargs() == 1) { ## e.g. M[0] , M[TRUE],  M[1:2]
377                      if(any(i)) as.vector(x)[i] else as.vector(x[1,1])[FALSE]
378                  } else callGeneric(x, i=i, drop= TRUE)})
379
380  ## select columns  ## select columns
381  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "missing", j = "index",  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "missing", j = "index",
382                           drop = "missing"),                           drop = "missing"),
# Line 313  Line 404
404          stop("not-yet-implemented 'Matrix' subsetting") ## FIXME          stop("not-yet-implemented 'Matrix' subsetting") ## FIXME
405
406      } else stop("nargs() = ", nA,      } else stop("nargs() = ", nA,
407                  " should never happen; please report.")                  ".  Extraneous illegal arguments inside '[ .. ]' ?")
408  }  }
409  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "lMatrix", j = "missing",  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "lMatrix", j = "missing",
410                           drop = "ANY"),                           drop = "ANY"),
# Line 343  Line 434
434          ## potentially inefficient -- FIXME --          ## potentially inefficient -- FIXME --
435          unlist(lapply(seq_len(m), function(j) x[i1[j], i2[j]]))          unlist(lapply(seq_len(m), function(j) x[i1[j], i2[j]]))
436
437      } else stop("nargs() = ", nA, " should never happen; please report.")      } else stop("nargs() = ", nA,
438                    ".  Extraneous illegal arguments inside '[ .. ]' ?")
439  }  }
440  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "matrix", j = "missing"),# drop="ANY"  setMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "matrix", j = "missing"),# drop="ANY"
441            .M.sub.i.2col)            .M.sub.i.2col)
# Line 356  Line 448
448                                  value = "ANY"),## double/logical/...                                  value = "ANY"),## double/logical/...
449            function (x, value) {            function (x, value) {
450                ## Fails for 'nMatrix' ... FIXME : make sure have method there                ## Fails for 'nMatrix' ... FIXME : make sure have method there
451                x@x <- value                x@x <- rep(value, length = length(x@x))
452                validObject(x)# check if type and lengths above match                validObject(x)# check if type and lengths above match
453                x                x
454            })            })
455
456  ## A[ ij ] <- value,  where ij is (i,j) 2-column matrix :  ## A[ ij ] <- value,  where ij is (i,j) 2-column matrix :
457    ## ----------------   The cheap general method --- FIXME: provide special ones
458  .M.repl.i.2col <- function (x, i, j, value)  .M.repl.i.2col <- function (x, i, j, value)
459  {  {
460      nA <- nargs()      nA <- nargs()
# Line 369  Line 462
462          if(!is.integer(nc <- ncol(i)))          if(!is.integer(nc <- ncol(i)))
463              stop("'i' has no integer column number",              stop("'i' has no integer column number",
464                   " should never happen; please report")                   " should never happen; please report")
465            else if(!is.numeric(i) || nc != 2)
466                stop("such indexing must be by logical or 2-column numeric matrix")
467          if(is.logical(i)) {          if(is.logical(i)) {
468                message(".M.repl.i.2col(): drop 'matrix' case ...")
469              i <- c(i) # drop "matrix"              i <- c(i) # drop "matrix"
470              return( callNextMethod() )              return( callNextMethod() )
471          } else if(!is.numeric(i) || nc != 2)          }
472              stop("such indexing must be by logical or 2-column numeric matrix")          if(!is.integer(i)) storage.mode(i) <- "integer"
473            if(any(i < 0))
474                stop("negative values are not allowed in a matrix subscript")
475            if(any(is.na(i)))
476                stop("NAs are not allowed in subscripted assignments")
477            if(any(i0 <- (i == 0))) # remove them
478                i <- i[ - which(i0, arr.ind = TRUE)[,"row"], ]
479            ## now have integer i >= 1
480          m <- nrow(i)          m <- nrow(i)
481          mod.x <- .type.kind[.M.kind(x)]          ## mod.x <- .type.kind[.M.kind(x)]
482          if(length(value) > 0 && m %% length(value) != 0)          if(length(value) > 0 && m %% length(value) != 0)
483              warning("number of items to replace is not a multiple of replacement length")              warning("number of items to replace is not a multiple of replacement length")
484          ## recycle:          ## recycle:
# Line 385  Line 488
488          ## inefficient -- FIXME -- (also loses "symmetry" unnecessarily)          ## inefficient -- FIXME -- (also loses "symmetry" unnecessarily)
489          for(k in seq_len(m))          for(k in seq_len(m))
490              x[i1[k], i2[k]] <- value[k]              x[i1[k], i2[k]] <- value[k]
x
491
492      } else stop("nargs() = ", nA, " should never happen; please report.")          x
493        } else stop("nargs() = ", nA,
494                    ".  Extraneous illegal arguments inside '[ .. ]' ?")
495  }  }
496
497  setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "matrix", j = "missing",  setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "matrix", j = "missing",
498                                  value = "replValue"),                                  value = "replValue"),
499            .M.repl.i.2col)            .M.repl.i.2col)
# Line 396  Line 501
501
502  setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "ANY", j = "ANY",  setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "ANY", j = "ANY",
503                                  value = "Matrix"),                                  value = "Matrix"),
504                     function (x, i, j, value) {
505    ### *TEMPORARY* diagnostic output:
506    ##                  cat("<Matrix1>[i,j] <- <Matrix1>:\n<Matrix1> = x :")
507    ##                  str(x)
508    ##                  cat("<Matrix2> = value :")
509    ##                  str(value)
510    ##                  cat("i :"); if(!missing(i)) str(i) else cat("<missing>\n")
511    ##                  cat("j :"); if(!missing(j)) str(j) else cat("<missing>\n")
512
513                         callGeneric(x=x, i=i, j=j, value = as.vector(value))
514                     })
515    setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "ANY", j = "ANY",
516                                    value = "Matrix"),
517                   function (x, i, j, value)                   function (x, i, j, value)
518                   callGeneric(x=x, i=i, j=j, value = as.vector(value)))                   callGeneric(x=x, i=i, j=j, value = as.vector(value)))
519
520  setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "ANY", j = "ANY",  setReplaceMethod("[", signature(x = "Matrix", i = "ANY", j = "ANY",
521                                  value = "matrix"),                                  value = "matrix"),
522                   function (x, i, j, value)                   function (x, i, j, value)
# Line 412  Line 531
531                                 class(value),class(x)))                                 class(value),class(x)))
532                else stop("not-yet-implemented 'Matrix[<-' method")                else stop("not-yet-implemented 'Matrix[<-' method")
533            })            })

## The trivial methods :
setMethod("cbind2", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "NULL"),
function(x, y) x)
setMethod("cbind2", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "missing"),
function(x, y) x)
setMethod("cbind2", signature(x = "NULL", y="Matrix"),
function(x, y) x)

setMethod("rbind2", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "NULL"),
function(x, y) x)
setMethod("rbind2", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "missing"),
function(x, y) x)
setMethod("rbind2", signature(x = "NULL", y="Matrix"),
function(x, y) x)

## Makes sure one gets x decent error message for the unimplemented cases:
setMethod("cbind2", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "Matrix"),
function(x, y) {
rowCheck(x,y)
stop(gettextf("cbind2() method for (%s,%s) not-yet defined",
class(x), class(y)))
})

## Use a working fall back {particularly useful for sparse}:
## FIXME: implement rbind2 via "cholmod" for C* and Tsparse ones
setMethod("rbind2", signature(x = "Matrix", y = "Matrix"),
function(x, y) {
colCheck(x,y)
t(cbind2(t(x), t(y)))
})

Legend:
 Removed from v.1673 changed lines Added in v.2039